In honor of the Dodgers acquiring Roberto Hernandez, who started his professional baseball career under the name of Fausto Carmona, I’m trying to come up with a list of Dodgers who started off life with a different name than they used when they played. I’m not going to use Spanish surnames where players switch between patronyms and matronyms however. Because then there would be a lot.
My list is pretty much trial and error with a lot of clicking at Baseball-Reference.
Erisbel Arruebarrena played in Cuba as Erisbel Arruebarruena
Sam Bohne started out life as Samuel Cohen
Max Carey originally was Maximillian Carnarius.
Bull Durham (there was an actual one who played in the early 20th century) was born Louis Raphael Staub
Nig Fuller was born Charles Furrer
Sandy Koufax was born Sanford Braun
Bob Miller was born Robert Gemeinweiser.
Jack O’Brien was born John Byrne.
Danny Ozark (longtime coach) but not a Dodger player was born with the surname of Orzechowski
Erv Pavlica was born Ervin Pavliecivich
Ron Perranoski was born with Ronald Perzanowski
Nick Polly was born Nicholas Polachanin
Jack Quinn was born Joannes Pajkos
Packy Rogers started off as Stanley Hazinski
Ted Savage was born with the surname Savage, but his original first name was Ephesian. But he later went by Theodore.
Phenomenal Smith was born John Francis Gammon
Andy Sommerville was born Henry Travers Summersgill
Sammy Strang was born Samuel Strang Nicklin and then reversed his middle and last names.
Joe Vizner was originally Joseph Vezina
Whitey Witt was born Ladislaw Waldemar Wittkowski
Most information came from this page at Baseball Reference.